MUMBAI

Mumbai, city, capital of Maharashtra state, southwestern India. It is the country’s financial and commercial center and its principal port on the Arabian Sea.

Located on Maharashtra’s coast, Mumbai is India’s most-populous city, and it is one of the largest and most densely populated urban areas in the world. It was built on a site of ancient settlement, and it took its name from the local goddess Mumba—a form of Parvati, the consort of Shiva, one of the principal deities of Hinduism—whose temple once stood in what is now the southeastern section of the city. It became known as Bombay during the British colonial period, the name possibly an Anglicized corruption of Mumbai or perhaps of Bom Baim (“Good Harbor”), supposedly a Portuguese name for the locale. The name Mumbai was restored officially in 1995, although Bombay remained in common usage.

CLIMATE

The climate of Mumbai is warm and humid. There are four seasons. Cool weather prevails from December to February and hot weather from March to May. The rainy season, brought by monsoon winds from the southwest, lasts from June to September and is followed by the post-monsoon season, lasting through October and November, when the weather is again hot. Mean monthly temperatures vary from 91 °F (33 °C) in May to 67 °F (19 °C) in January. Annual rainfall is about 70 inches (1,800 mm), with an average of 24 inches (600 mm) occurring in July alone.

GOVERMENT OF MUMBAI

As the capital of Maharashtra state, the city is an integral political division of the state government, the headquarters of which are called the Mantralaya. The state administers Mumbai’s police force and has administrative control over certain city departments. The central Indian government controls communication and transportation infrastructure, including the postal service, the railways, the port, and the airport. Mumbai is the headquarters of India’s western naval fleet and the base for the Indian flagship, INS Mumbai.

The government of the city is vested in the fully autonomous Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM). Its legislative body is elected on adult franchise every four years and functions through its various standing committees. The chief executive, who is appointed every three years by the state government, is the municipal commissioner. The mayor is annually elected by the MCGM; the mayor presides over corporation meetings and enjoys the highest honor in the city but has no real administrative authority.

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